Student 2Here are some of the key texts that influenced my work.

Abuosi, A. A., & Abor, P. A. (2014). Migration Intentions of Nursing Students in Ghana: Implications for Human Resource Development in the Health Sector. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 1–14.

Ackers, L. (2005). Moving people and knowledge: Scientific mobility in the European Union1. International Migration, 43(5), 99–131.

Adepoju, A. (2000). Issues and Recent Trends in International Migration in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Social Science Journal, 52(165), 383–394.

Adusei, S.A. (Forthcoming). Migrating Under the Diversity Visa Lottery program: Intentions of University of Ghana Students. (Unpublished MPhil thesis). University of Ghana.

Akabzaa, T. M. (2010). Migration and economic development in Ghana. [Accra]: Centre for Migration Studies, University of Ghana.

Akesson, L. (2004). Making a life: Meanings of migration in Cape Verde. Göteborg University,. Retrieved from

Anarfi, J., Quartey, P., & Adjei, J. (2010). Key Determinants of Migration among Health Professionals in Ghana. Report Prepared for the Sussex Centre for Migration Studies, Sussex, UK.

Anyidoho, N. A. (2015). The employment expectations, preferences and aspirations of final-year Ghanaian university students. Presented at the Codesria Youth Employment in Africa Conference.

Appadurai, A. (2004). The capacity to aspire: Culture and the terms of recognition. Culture and Public Action, 59, 84.

Aryeetey, E., & Kanbur, S. M. R. (Eds.). (2008). The economy of Ghana: analytical perspectives on stability, growth & poverty. Oxford : Accra, Ghana: James Currey ; Woeli Publishing Services.

Awuah, P. (2012). Path to a New Africa (SSIR). Retrieved June 11, 2015, from

Awumbila, M. (2011). Socio-cultural dimensions of migration in Ghana. [Accra]: Published for the Centre for Migration Studies, University of Ghana by Woeli Pub. Services.

Baah-Boateng, W., & Ewusi, K. (2013). Employment: Policies and Options. In K. Ewusi (Ed.), Policies and options for Ghana’s economic development. ISSER, University of Ghana. Retrieved from

Basch, L., Schiller, N. G., & Blanc, C. S. (2013). Nations unbound: Transnational projects, postcolonial predicaments, and deterritorialized nation-states. Routledge.

Bauman, Z. (2000). Globalization: the human consequences. New York; Chichester: Columbia University Press.

Bjarnesen, J. (2007). On the Move: Young Men Navigating Paths towards Adulthood in Gueule Tapée (Dakar). Retrieved from

Brettell, C. B., & Hollifield, J. F. (2014). Migration theory: Talking across disciplines. Routledge. Retrieved from

Brooks, R., & Waters, J. L. (2011). Student mobilities, migration and the internationalization of higher education. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York: Palgrave macmillan.

Bryceson, D. F. (2012). Discovery and denial: Social science theory and interdisciplinarity in African Studies. African Affairs, 111(443), 281–302.

Buah, F. K. (1998). A history of Ghana (Revised updated ed). London: Macmillan.

Bump, M. (2006, March 1). Ghana: Searching for Opportunities at Home and Abroad. Retrieved November 22, 2014, from

Cairns, D., & Smyth, J. (2011). I wouldn’t mind moving actually: Exploring Student Mobility in Northern Ireland: Student mobility in northern Ireland. International Migration, 49(2), 135–161.

Caldwell, J. C. (1965). Extended family obligations and education: A study of an aspect of demographic transition amongst Ghanaian university students. Population Studies, 19(2), 183–199.

Carling, J. (2002). Migration in the age of involuntary immobility: theoretical reflections and Cape Verdean experiences. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 28(1), 5–42.

Carling, J. (2008). The human dynamics of migrant transnationalism. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31(8), 1452–1477.

Carlson, S. (2011). Just a matter of choice? Student mobility as a social and biographical process. (SCMR Working Paper No. 68). University of Sussex: Sussex Centre for Migration Research. Retrieved from

Castles, S. (2014). International migration at a crossroads. Citizenship Studies, 18(2), 190–207.

Castles, S., & Miller, M. J. (2003). The Age of Migration, Third Edition: International Population Movements in the Modern World (Third Edition). The Guilford Press.

Cavanagh, M., & Glennie, A. (2012). International students and net migration in the UK. IPPR London. Retrieved from

Clarke, A. (2012, July 11). To be or not to be… a migrant? Differing definitions and public perceptions of migrants in the UK. Retrieved from

Clifton, J. (2008). Global migration patterns and job creation. Retrieved from

Coe, C. (2012). Growing Up and Going Abroad: How Ghanaian Children Imagine Transnational Migration. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 38(6), 913–931.

Collier, P. (2014). Exodus: How Migration is Changing Our World. New York: Oxford University Press, USA. Retrieved from

Comaroff, J., & Comaroff, J. L. (2012). Theory from the South: Or, how Euro-America is Evolving Toward Africa. Anthropological Forum, 22(2), 113–131.

De Haas, H. (2014). Migration Theory: Quo Vadis?. IMI Oxford University. Retrieved from

Dovlo, D., & Nyonator, F. (1999). Migration by graduates of the University of Ghana Medical School: a preliminary rapid appraisal. Human Resources for Health Development Journal, 3(1), 40–51.

Driouchi, A. (2014, September 24). Economics of Migration of Students from the Arab Region to OECD countries [MPRA Paper]. Retrieved November 20, 2014, from

Du Bois, W. E. B. (2007). The souls of black folk. Oxford University Press.

Durham, D. (2000). Youth and the social imagination in Africa: Introduction to parts 1 and 2. Anthropological Quarterly, 73(3), 113–120.

Economic Commission for Africa. (2006). International Migration and Development: Implicatons for Africa. United Nations Economic Comission for Africa (UNECA).

Effah, E. (2014, May 11). “”No pastures greener than our green field” – Otumfuo tells youth”. Citifmonline. Retrieved from

Fellesson, M., & Mahlck, P. (2014). Academics on the Move. Mobility and Institutional Change in the Swedish Development Support to Research Capacity Building in Mozambique. Nordic Africa Institute.

Findlay, A. M. (2010). An Assessment of Supply and Demand‐side Theorizations of International Student Mobility. International Migration, 49(2), 162–190.

Findlay, A. M., King, R., Geddes, A., Smith, F., Stam, M. A., Dunne, M., … Ahrens, M. J. (2010). Motivations and experiences of UK students studying abroad. University of Dundee, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Retrieved from

Flamenbaum, R. (forthcoming). Digital Literacy and Codes of Transformation in the “New Ghana” (Tentative Title). University of California, Los Angeles.

Frye, M. (2012). Bright futures in Malawi’s new dawn: Educational aspirations as assertions of identity. AJS; American Journal of Sociology, 117(6), 1565.

Gargano, T. (2009). (Re)conceptualizing International Student Mobility The Potential of Transnational Social Fields. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(3), 331–346.

Grosfoguel, R. (2011). Decolonizing Post-Colonial Studies and Paradigms of Political Economy: Transmodernity, Decolonial Thinking, and Global Coloniality. Transmodernity, 1(1), 1–36.

Hallberg Adu, K. (2009, 28). Ghana: Private higher education on the rise. Retrieved May 18, 2012, from

Hallberg Adu, K. (2014). What is the opposite of a knowledge society? A critical reflection from Ghana. In L. Amoah (Ed.), Impacts of the Knowledge Society on Economic and Social Growth in Africa. IGI Global.

Haraway, D. (1988). Situated knowledges: The science question in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective. Feminist Studies, 14(3), 575–599.


Herman, E. (2006). Migration as a Family Business: The Role of Personal Networks in the Mobility Phase of Migration. International Migration, 44(4), 191–230.

History Ends In Nigeria. (2014, March 12). Vanguard News. Retrieved from

Ho, E. L.-E. (2011). “Claiming” the diaspora: Elite mobility, sending state strategies and the spatialities of citizenship. Progress in Human Geography, 35(6), 757–772.

Hoffman, D. M. (2009). Changing Academic Mobility Patterns and International Migration What Will Academic Mobility Mean in the 21st Century? Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(3), 347–364.

Hollifield, J. F. (2000). The politics of international migration. Migration Theory: Talking across Disciplines, 137–85.

hooks,  bell. (2010). Teaching critical thinking: practical wisdom. New York: Routledge.

Hountondji, P. J. (1995). Producing Knowledge in Africa Today the Second Bashorun MKO Abiola Distinguished Lecture. African Studies Review, 38(03), 1–10.

Iddrisu, A. M. (2014). The Effect of Poverty, Household Structure and Child Work on School Enrolment. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(6), 145–156.

Iliffe, J. (2007). Africans: the history of a continent (2nd ed., New ed). Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Iredale, R. (2002). The Migration of Professionals: Theories and Typologies. International Migration, 39(5), 7–26.

Jensen, P., & Pedersen, P. J. (2007). To Stay or Not to Stay? Out-Migration of Immigrants from Denmark. International Migration, 45(5), 87–113.

Jerven, M. (2013). Poor Numbers: How We Are Misled by African Development Statistics and What to Do about It (1 edition). Cornell University Press.


Kapur, D., & McHale, J. (2005). Give us your best and brightest: The global hunt for talent and its impact on the developing world. Center for Global Development.

Katseli, L. T., Lucas, R. E., & Xenogiani, T. (2006). Effects of migration on sending countries: what do we know? OECD Development Centre. Retrieved from

Kebede, M. (2004). Africa’s quest for a philosophy of decolonization. Amsterdam; New York: Rodopi.

Keteku, N. (2007). Africa’s Push-Pull Factors – or Is It Pull-Push? Influences on African Students’ Decisions to Study in the United States. Education USA.

Kim, Y. (2010). Female Individualization?: Transnational Mobility and Media Consumption of Asian Women. Media, Culture & Society, 32(1), 25–43.

King, R., Findlay, A., & Ahrens, J. (2010). International student mobility literature review. Report to Hefce and Co.

Kishun, R. (2009). Measuring international student mobility trends: In and out of Africa. Unpublished Mimeograph. Retrieved from

Kleist, N. (2011). “Let us rebuild our country”: migration-development scenarios in Ghana. Copenhagen, Denmark: Danish Institute for International Studies.

Latif Sandbaek, M. (2007). “Everybody wants to go abroad” An ethnographic analysis of migration motivations in Morocco. University of Copenhagen.

Lee, E. S. (1966). A theory of migration. Demography, 3(1), 47–57.

Levitt, P. (2001). Transnational migration: taking stock and future directions. Global Networks, 1(3), 195–216.

Madge, C., Raghuram, P., & Noxolo, P. (2009). Engaged pedagogy and responsibility: a postcolonial analysis of international students. Geoforum, 40(1), 34–45.

Mamdani, M. (2011, 21). Pambazuka – The importance of research in a university. Retrieved May 18, 2012, from

Manuh, T. (Ed.) (2005). At Home in the World: International Migration and Development in Contemporary Ghana and West Africa. Accra: Sub-Saharan Publishers.

Martin, J. (2007). What’s New With the “Been-To”? Educational migrants, Return from Europe and Migrant’s Culture in Urban Southern Ghana. In H. P. Hahn & G. Klute (Eds.), Cultures of Migration: African Perspectives. LIT Verlag Münster.

Marzagora, S. (2016). The humanism of reconstruction: African intellectuals, decolonial critical theory and the opposition to the “posts” (postmodernism, poststructuralism, postcolonialism). Journal of African Cultural Studies, 0(0), 1–18.



Massey, D. S., Arango, J., Hugo, G., Kouaouci, A., Pellegrino, A., & Taylor, J. E. (1993). Theories of international migration: a review and appraisal. Population and Development Review, 431–466.

Mazzucato, V. (2008). The double engagement: Transnationalism and integration. Ghanaian migrants’ lives between Ghana and the Netherlands. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 34(2), 199–216.

McKenzie, D. (2005). Paper walls are easier to tear down: Passport costs and legal barriers to emigration. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, (3783). Retrieved from

Mignolo, W. (2002). The geopolitics of knowledge and the colonial difference. The South Atlantic Quarterly, 101(1), 57–96.

Migration. (2011). IOM’s Glossary on Migration. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Migration. Retrieved from en/sites/iom/home/about-migration/key-migration-terms-1.html#Migration

Mkandawire, T. (1995). Three generations of African academics: A note. Transformation, (28). Retrieved from

Mkandawire, T. (2015). Africa: Beyond Recovery. Accra, Ghana: Sub-Saharan Publishers.

Mpinganjira, M. (2009). Comparative analysis of factors influencing the decision to study abroad. African Journal of Business Management, 3(8), 358–365.

Murphy-Lejeune, E. (2003). Student mobility and narrative in Europe: The new strangers. Routledge.

Ndlovu-Gatsheni, S. J. (2013a). Decolonizing the African University. The Thinkers, 46–51.

Ndlovu-Gatsheni, S. J. (2013b). Why decoloniality in the 21st century. The Thinkers, 48, 10–15.

Ngozi Adichie, C. (2009). The Danger of a Single Story. Retrieved from

Nyonator, F., Dovlo, D., & Sagoe, K. (2005). The health of the nation and the brain drain in the health sector. At Home in the World, 227–249.

Oduro-Frimpong, J. (2009). Glocalization Trends: The Case of Hip-Life Music in Contemporary Ghana ‘. International Journal of Communication, 3, 1085–1106.

Osha, S. (1999). Kwasi Wiredu and the problems of conceptual decolonization. Quest, 13(1/2), 157–164.

Oyewole, O. (2010). Africa and the global knowledge domain. Higher Education and Globalization, 19.

Pierre, J. (2013). The Predicament of Blackness, Postcolonial Ghana and the Politics of Race. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Quartey. P. (2009). Migration in Ghana: a country profile 2009. Geneva: Internat. Organization for Migration. Retrieved from

Quayson, A. (2014). Oxford Street, Accra: city life and the itineraries of transnationalism. Durham: Duke University Press.

Raghuram, P. (2013). Theorising the spaces of student migration. Population, Space and Place, 19(2), 138–154.

Saïd, E. (1978). Orientalism: Western Representations of the Orient. London: Penguin.

Salt, J. (1997). International movements of the highly skilled. Retrieved from

Selasi, T. (2005). Bye-Bye Babar | The LIP Magazine. Retrieved from

Sen, A. (2011). Development as Freedom (Reprint edition). Anchor.

Shipley, J. W. (2013). Living the Hiplife: Celebrity and Entrepreneurship in Ghanaian Popular Music. Durham and London: Duke University Press Books.

Stark, O., & Taylor, J. E. (1991). Migration incentives, migration types: The role of relative deprivation. The Economic Journal, 1163–1178.

Teferra, D., & Greijn, H. (Eds.). (2012). Higher Education and Globalization: challenges, threats and opportunities for Africa. Edulink. Retrieved from

Thiongʼo, N. wa. (1987). Decolonising the mind: the politics of language in African literature. Harare, Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe Pub. House.

Tonah, S. (2007). Ghanaians abroad and their ties home. Cultural and religious dimensions of transnational migration. Retrieved from

Tremblay, K. (2005). Academic Mobility and Immigration. Journal of Studies in International Education, 9(3), 196–228.

VanderStoep, S. W., & Johnston, D. D. (2009). Research methods for everyday life: blending qualitative and quantitative approaches. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Verbik, L., & Lasanowski, V. (2007). International student mobility: Patterns and trends. World Education News and Reviews, 20(10), 1–16.

Vincent-Lancrin, S. (2009). Cross-border higher education: trends and perspectives. Higher Education to 2030. Volume 2: Globalisation, 63–88.

Wainaina, B. (2012). Why I am a Pan-Africanist, not an Afropolitan. Presented at the ASAUK. Retrieved from

World Bank. (2009). Accelerating Catch-up : Tertiary  Education for Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Retrieved from

Zeleza, P. T. (2009). African Studies and Universities since Independence. Transition: An International Review, 110–135.



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